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Pepper was born in 1886 as József Schwartz, the son of a middle-class
Jewish family. Jews in Hungary faced less discrimination than in other
European countries and József was able to attend the prestigious
Barcsay Gimnázium and then go on in 1904 to the University of Budapest.
At the age of 17 he changed his name to Pogány, a name with a Hungarian
ring to it, though it means “pagan or heathen” and may have been his
way of breaking with Judaism and all organised religion. At the
university he studied Hungarian and German language and literature at a
time when Hungarian literature had become a call progressive change. He,
his friend Ernő Czóbel and his sister Irén Czóbel, became involved with
a group of radical students, began reading Népszava (The
People’s Voice) and subsequently secretly joined the Social Democratic
Party of Hungary, secretly because the government forbid students
joining political parties. As part of his studies Pógany spent six
months in Berlin and six months in Paris, attending some classes but
spending more time with the labour movement and the socialist parties
before returning to finish his dissertation on the Hungarian poet János
Arany, graduating summa cum laude. Having earned his doctorate, Pógany
married Irén Czóbel in 1909.
Slim’s: Death Angel, Heathen, Transition, My Victim, 8 p.m. today; Death Angel, 3 Inches of Blood, Battlecross, Revocation, 8 p.m. Fri.; Cherub, Mansions on the Moon, 10 p.m. Sat.; Emilie Autumn, 8 p.m. Tues.; Au Revoir Simone, Genuis, CALLmeKat, 8 p.m. Wed. 333 11th St., S.F. (415) 255-0333.
The Hungarian Soviet Republic lasted only 133 days with Béla Kun as
head of state and Pogány serving both as Commissar for War and as a
member of the five-man executive committee of the Revolutionary
Governing Council. Forced to resign as Commissar for War, he was later
appointed a minor military commander and finally made Minister of
Education. Pogany was a strong advocate of an alliance with the
peasants. He argued that the government should give up its attempt to
collectivize agriculture and instead distribute land directly to the
peasants. His position might have made a difference, but it was too
late. The Hungarian Soviet Republic was disintegrating. When the Western
powers presented the Clemenceau Note to the Hungarian Soviet Republic
demanding that it cede the territory that its Red Army had recently
conquered, Kun recognised that the government would have to acquiesce.
The Hungarian Communist revolution had been defeated. On August 1, 1919
the Revolutionary Governing Council turned over power to the moderate
Social Democrats who had sat out the revolution. Kun and other Communist
leaders left Budapest by train for Austria eventually reaching Vienna.
TERRA HAUTE, Ind. – The No. 2 University of Colorado men’s cross country team more than proved their ranking Saturday morning as the Buffs handily defeated No. 4 Oregon and the rest of the field at the 2013 NCAA Pre-National Invitational at the La Vern Gibson Championships Course.
Individually, junior Morgan Pearson was the first Buff to cross the finish, coming in seventh overall in 23 minutes, 39.68 seconds. He was just .33 seconds behind the sixth-place finisher, Purdue’s Matt McClintock (23:39.35). Stanford’s Sean McGorty was fifth and also less than a second in front of Pearson with a time of 23:38.97.
Yoshi’s: Jimmy Mulidore NY Jazz Band, 8 and 10 p.m. Fri.; Ginger Baker’s Jazz Confusion, 7:30 and 9:30 p.m. Sat., 7 p.m. Sun.; Leon Russell, 8 p.m. Mon.-Tues. 510 Embarcadero West, Oakland. (510) 238-9200.